So what does dyslexia really mean?


(All information was obtained from Stark – Griffin’s book Dyslexia)

I can test for and treat dyslexia in children Gr. 3 – Gr. 12.I am registered as a specialist on the Red Apple website and

Definition of dyslexia

  • A neurological-functional problem manifesting as a deficit in word decoding (reading), encoding (spelling) and nemkinesia (writing) due to a minimal brain dysfunction and/or differential brain function.

More useful information regrading dyslexia

  • Eidetic:  give meaning to text in general and recognizing words from previous experience.
  • Phonetic:  allocating a sound to each letter and using these sounds in groups to produce words.
  • People suffering from dyslexia usually have an average to above average intelligence.
  • 10% – 20% of all children suffer from dyslexia.
  • Children suffering from dyslexia feel confusion, frustration, anxiety, withdrawl and compensating behavioural patterns.  These children are often teased and humiliated by their classmates.Dyslexia may lead to poor self image and even depression.  These feelings may manifest in behavioural problems which inlcude aggression, vandalism, disruption of class and a hostile attitude. 

Types of dyslexia

  • Dysnemkinesia

Deficit in the ability to develop motor engrams (memory trace) for written symbols.

Child wil reverse letters:

  • A child should have no letter reversals by Gr. 4
  • When writing the alphabet 1 reversal is acceptable in Gr. 3
  • When writing the alphabet 3 reversals are acceptable in Gr. 2
  • When writing the alphabet 5 reversals are acceptable in Gr. 1

  • Dysphonesia

Deficit in visual-symbol and sound integration.

Child will struggle to read unknows words as he cannot decode them / will have difficulty spelling e.g. slow/solw, does/dose

Child will struggle to read unknows words as he cannot decode them / will have difficulty spelling e.g. slow/solw, does/dose.

  • Dyseidesia

This type of dyslexia is genetic.

Deficit in the ability to perceive whole words and to recognize words from previous experience.

Child will struggle to read words that he cannot relate to a picture e.g. did / will struggle to read sight words / will struggle to read word that connot be divided /will spell word the way they sound e.g. does/duz.

  • Dysphoneidesia

Mix between dysphonesia and dyseidesia.

  • Dysnemkinphonesia

Mix between dynemkinesia and dysphonesia.

  • Dysnemkineidesia

Mix between dysnemkinesia and dyseidesia.

  • Dynmemkinphoneidesia

Mix between dysnemkinesia, dysphonesia an dyseidesia.

One has to rule out the following deficits before a diagnosis of dyslexia can be made:

  • Problematic vision and/or eye muscle functioning
  • Cognitive impairment
  • Emotional problems/psychological factors
  • Attention deficit disorder
  • Health factors:  e.g. nutrition, infections, allergies, trauma
  • Environmental factors


The child needs to be evaluated by a professional (usually an occupational therapist/speech therapist/educational psychologist/optometrist) that is registered with RADA (Red Apple Dyslexia Association).

The test used is called the Dyslexia Test developed by Stark-Griffin.

Concessions is allowed in schools and may include:Spelling concessions

Extra time when writing tests/exams

Oral exams

If dyslexia is identified it needs to be specified which type of dyslexia as each one has a different treament approach.

All types of dyslexia can be improved allthough the percentage differs from person to person.

Dyseidesia cannot be 100% cured as it is gentic.

Dysphoneidesia is the most difficult type of dyslexia to treat.

Dysnemkinesia is easily treated.

Build on the child’s strengths and later give attention to the weaknesses.

Work around the problem to improve reading/writing and spelling.

Famous dyslexics

No matter what your dissability – you can still be successful !!!

Just look at these famous dyslexic people:

  • Pablo Picasso
  • Tom Cruise
  • Richard Branson
  • Leonard da Vinci
  • Thomas Edison
  • Whoopi Goldberg
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