What is visio-motor integration and why is it important for hand writing?


Visio-motor integration is the ability to coordinate the visual system (what we see) with our fine motor skills (to be able to copy this using our hands).

Our visual system consists of 3 factors:

1.Visual perceptual skills



Sequential memory

Form constancy


Spatial relations

Position in spaceVisual acuity

2. Vision

Eye-muscle functioning

3. Fine eye-hand coordination

The ability of the eyes to visually guide the movement of the hand

The motor skills necessary consist of the following:

  • Shoulder girdle stability

Having stability at the bigger joints will improve fine eye-hand coordination in the hand

  • Hand functioning skills

To be able to hold and manipulate the pencil

  • Fine eye-hand coordination

How do we know if there is a problem?

  • If a child struggles to copy shapes/patterns/words/numbers correctly from the blackboard/out of a text book
  • If a child takes a long time to copy work from the blackboard/text book
  • A child’s handwriting may look disjointed/untidy/illegible

What can we do to help?
Work on all the above mentioned visual and motor skills to improve the end result that is visio-motor integration:

  • Visual perceptual skills
  • Have the child’s eyes tested (vision and eye muscle functioning)
  • Fine eye-hand coordination
  • Postural control – especially shoulder girdle stability
  • Hand function

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