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Carla Grobler

Arbeidsterapeut / Occupational Therapist
Pr No:0660000080136

Each child is unique!
Each child has the ability to improve!

Dyslexia vs Laterality

Dyslexia vs Laterality

How does the child present in the classroom

The child with Dyslexia:

  • Confusing b/d
  • Reverses letters/numbers
  • Skips words/lines when reading
  • Performs poorly in spellings tests
  • Has anxiety when reading
  • Guesses words when reading
  • Reading and/or spelling below age level
  • Knows the work when mom asked them at home but
  • performs poorly in the exa
  • Adds extra letters to words/omits letters
  • Poor comprehension
  • Poor sequential memory
  • Day-dreamer
  • Struggles to copy work from the blackboard

The child with Laterality-issues:

  • Confusing letters e.g. b/d
  • Reversing some letters
  • Swaps hand while performing tasks
  • Turns the page more than 45 degrees
  • Turns his body in the chair excessively when writing/drawing
  • Moves to page to his dominant side
  • Doesn’t develop a dominant hand
  • Kicks a ball/catches a ball with the foot/hand closest to the
  • ball
  • Cross dominant in eyes/hand/foot
  • Will choose 1 hand for fine motor tasks and 1 hand for gross
  • motor tasks

Definition

Dyslexia

Neurological-functional problem manifesting as a deficit in word decoding (reading), encoding (spelling) and nemkinesia (writing) due to a minimal brain dysfunction and/or differential brain function

Types of dyslexia:

  • Dysnemkinesia: Deficit in the ability to develop motor gestalts (engrams) for written symbols, e.g., letters, and write them without reversals
  • Dysphonesia: Deficit in visual-symbol and sound (grapheme-phoneme) integrations, and the inability to develop phonetic word analysis-synthesis skills
  • Dyseidesia: Deficit in the ability to perceive whole words (total configuration) as visual gestalts and match them with auditory gestalts
  • Dysphoneidesia: Deficit in grapheme-phoneme integration and in the ability to perceive whole words as visual gestalts and match them with auditory gestalts (Mixed dysphonetic and dyeidetic coding patterns)
  • Dysnemkinphonesia: Deficit in the ability to develop motor gestalts for written symbols and in grapheme-phoneme integration (Mixed dynmekinetic and dyphonetic coding patterns)
  • Dysnemkineidesia: Deficit in the ability to develop motor gestalts for written symbols and the ability to perceive whole words as visual gestalts and match them with auditory gestalts (Mixed dynemkinetic and dyseidetic coding patterns)
  • Dysnemkinphoneidesia: Deficit in the ability to develop motor gestalts for written symbols, grapheme-phoneme integration, and tin perceiving whole words as visual gestalt and matching them with auditory gestalts (Mixed dysnemkinetic, dyphonetic and dyseidetic coding patterns)

Laterality

  • Developing a dominant hand by the age of 5 year 6 months.
  • Start to develop between 2 – 4 years old
  • Only 1% of the population is trulyambidextrous

Midline-crossing

  • The body is divided into 2 vertical halves
  • Spatial disorganizationwhen a child crosses their midline thus avoids it

Bilateral integration

The 2 sides of the body working together in a coordinated fashion

  • Symmetrical bilateral integration: This is the ability of your extremities to mirror each other e.g.: Bring both hands up to your face/Jumping like a bunny/Playing drums/Jumping rope
  • Reciprocal bilateral integration:
  • This is the ability where the extremities do the direct opposite movement of the other side e.g.: Swimming/Crawling/Walking/Riding a bike
  • Asymmetrical bilateral integration: This is the ability of the extremities to each perform their own movement while part-taking in the same task e.g.: Writing with the dominant hand while the non-dominant hand stabilizes the paper/Cutting with the dominant hand while the non-dominant hand manipulates the paper/Spreading butter on your bread with the dominant hand while the non-dominant hand is holding the bread

Signs and Symptoms

Dyslexia

As under ‘How does it present in the classroom’

Laterality and midline-crossing

  • Will swop hands when approaching the midline e.g. transfer an object/crayon from one hand to another
  • Turns the page more than 45 degrees (usually more) when colouring/drawing instead of crossing the midline
  • Turns his/her body in a chair excessively when writing/drawing instead of crossing the midline
  • Moves a page to the dominant side when writing/drawing instead of crossing the midline
  • Doesn’t develop a dominant hand;  uses left hand on left side of body and right hand on right side of body
  • Kicks a ball with the foot closest to the ball – not with 1 preferred foot
  • Struggles to catch a ball when thrown off-centre as he/she doesn’t want to cross the midline of the body with the hand/arm
  • Cross dominance in eyes, hands and feet (not all dominance on the same side)
  • Will choose one hand for fine motor skills and one hand for gross motor skills

Treatment

Dyslexia

  • Dyslexia Screening Test – Sandra Stark
  • Dyslexia Determination Test
  • Can only diagnose from Gr. 3 term 3
  • Refer for vision and eye muscle functioning evaluation
  • Play therapy for emotional support
  • OT:       Occupational therapy (specialist)
  • ST:        Speech therapy (specialist)
  • RT:        Remedial teacher/therapist

Laterality and midline-crossing

  • Occupational  therapy
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